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In Wild Critical Buffer Overflow Vulnerability in Solaris Can Allow
Remote Takeover — CVE-2020-14871

In Wild Critical Buffer Overflow Vulnerability in Solaris Can Allow Remote Takeover — CVE-2020-14871

FireEye Mandiant has been investigating compromised Oracle Solaris
machines in customer environments. During our investigations, we
discovered an exploit tool on a customer’s system and analyzed it to
see how it was attacking their Solaris environment. The FLARE team’s
Offensive Task Force analyzed the exploit to determine how it worked,
reproduced the vulnerability on different versions of Solaris, and
then reported it to Oracle. In this blog post we present a description
of the vulnerability, offer a quick way to test whether a system may
be vulnerable, and suggest mitigations and workarounds. Mandiant
experts from the FLARE team will provide more information on this
vulnerability and how it was used
by UNC1945
during a Nov. 12 webinar. Register
today
and start preparing questions, because we will be fielding
them from the audience at the end of the session.

Vulnerability Discovery

The security vulnerability occurs in the Pluggable Authentication
Modules (PAM) library. PAM enables a Solaris application to
authenticate users while allowing the system administrator to
configure authentication parameters (e.g., password complexity and
expiration) in one location that is consistently enforced by all applications.

The actual vulnerability is a classic stack-based buffer overflow
located in the PAM
parse_user_name function
. An
abbreviated version of this function is shown in Figure 1.

static int
parse_user_name(char
*user_input, char **ret_username)
{
         
  register char *ptr;
            register int index
= 0;
            char
username[PAM_MAX_RESP_SIZE];
       /* …
*/

            ptr = user_input;
     
 /* … */
             /*
             *
username will be the first string we get from
user_input
             * – we skip leading
whitespaces and ignore trailing whitespaces
         
   */
            while (*ptr != ‘’) {
     
            if ((*ptr == ‘ ‘) || (*ptr == ‘t’))
   
                           break;
                 
else {
                               username[index]
= *ptr;
                               index++;
                               ptr++;
               
  }
            }
             /* ret_username
will be freed in pam_get_user(). */
            if
((*ret_username = malloc(index + 1)) == NULL)
       
          return (PAM_BUF_ERR);
            (void)
strcpy(*ret_username, username);
            return
(PAM_SUCCESS);
}

Figure 1: The parse_user_name function has a
stack-based buffer overflow vulnerability

The vulnerability arises whenever a username longer than PAM_MAX_RESP_SIZE (512 bytes) is passed to parse_user_name. The vulnerability has likely
existed for decades, and one possible reason is that it is only
exploitable if an application does not already limit usernames to a
smaller length before passing them to PAM. One situation where
network-facing software does not always limit the username length
arises in the SSH server, and this is the exploit vector used by the
tool that we discovered.

SSH Keyboard-Interactive authentication is a “passthrough”
authentication mechanism where the SSH protocol relays prompts and
responses between the server’s PAM libraries and the client. It was
designed to support custom forms of authentication such as two-factor
without modifying the SSH protocol. By manipulating SSH client
settings to force Keyboard-Interactive authentication to prompt for
the username rather than sending it through normal means, an attacker
can also pass unlimited input to the PAM parse_user_name function.

Proof of Concept Exploit

In order to quickly test different versions of Solaris to see if
they may be vulnerable, we developed a proof of concept exploit to
trigger the overflow and crash the SSH server. The standard OpenSSH
client offers all the options needed to trigger the vulnerability
(Figure 2).

In Wild Critical Buffer Overflow Vulnerability in Solaris Can Allow
Remote Takeover — CVE-2020-14871

Figure 2: A server can be quickly tested
to see if it is vulnerable over SSH

The indication that the server is vulnerable is that the SSH client
prints “Authentication failed;” a non-vulnerable PAM library causes
the SSH server to repeatedly prompt for a username if it receives one
that is too long. The overflow in the PAM library also causes the SSH
server to crash, as shown in Figure 3. The operating system writes a
crash dump to /core if the SSH server
crashes with no debugger attached. In fact, if a /core file exists on a Solaris machine and the
file command reports that it is from sshd,
those are indicators consistent with this vulnerability having been exploited.



Figure 3: The SSH server crashes in the
parse_user_name function

Vulnerable Operating Systems

  • Solaris 9 (some releases)
  • Solaris 10 (all
    releases)
  • Solaris 11.0
    • While the parse_user_name function remains vulnerable
      in unpatched Solaris 11.1 and later, unrelated changes to the
      PAM library truncate the username before the vulnerable function
      receives it, rendering the issue non-exploitable via SSH. If the
      parse_user_name function were
      reachable in another context, then the vulnerability could
      become exploitable.
  • Illumos (OpenIndiana
    2020.04)

Mitigations and Workaround

A patch from Oracle for Solaris 10 and 11 is described in the October
2020 Critical Patch Update
.

Because Solaris 9 is no longer supported, Oracle has not released a
patch. For Solaris 9, as well as Solaris 10 or 11 systems where
patching is inconvenient, we recommend editing the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file to add the lines ChallengeResponseAuthentication no and KbdInteractiveAuthentication no and restart the
SSH server. While this removes the opportunity to exploit the
vulnerability using SSH Keyboard-Interactive authentication, there may
be other ways to attack the parse_user_name
function and we recommend using this workaround only as a stopgap
until Solaris 9 systems can be upgraded, or the October patch can be
accessed and installed for supported Solaris versions.

Acknowledgements

Jeffrey Martin of Rapid7 contributed to the testing of this vulnerability.