April 10, 2021


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Watermarking PRFs from Lattices: Public Extract and Collusion Resistant, by Yukun Wang and Mingqiang Wang

A software watermarking scheme enables one to embed a “mark ” (i.e., a message) into a program without significantly changing the functionality. Moreover, any removal of the watermark from a marked program is futile without significantly changing the functionality of the program. At present, the construction of software watermarking mainly focuses on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs), watermarking public key encryption, watermarking signature, etc.

In this work, we construct new watermarking PRFs from lattices which provide collusion resistant and public extraction. Our schemes are the first to simultaneously achieve all of these properties. The key to the success of our new constructions lies in two parts. First, we relax the notion of functionality-preserving. In general, we require that a marked program (approximately) preserve the input/output behavior of the original program. For our scheme, the output circuit is divided into two parts, one for PRF output and the other for auxiliary functions. As a result, we only require the PRF output circuit to satisfy functionality-preserving. Second, the marking method we use is essentially different form the previous scheme. In general, the mark program will change the output of some special point. The extraction algorithm determines whether the circuit is marked by determining whether the output of some special points has been changed. In our schemes, we use the constrained signature to mark a PRF circuit.